Fouloir : A machine designed to crush the grapes to release their juice, it is often combined with a de-stemmer to remove the stalks. For white wine vinification, this permits the juice to be released faster.
Horizontal screw press : Two end-plates within a cylinder that rotate towards each other around a double-threaded screw to crush the grapes inside.
Pneumatic presses : Horizontal presses with inflatable airbags or chambers.
Settling of the Must : Static sedimentation to remove must (impurities such as vegetable matter, skins, etc.) in suspension in the juice, before fermentation.
Alcoholic fermentation : The transformation of grape sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide using yeast.
Temperature control : An electronic system that monitors and regulates the temperature inside fermentation vats by circulating refrigerated or heated liquid within a closed circuit, as needed.
Malolactic fermentation : A second bacteriological phenomenon in vinification that enables acidity to be reduced by the action of lactic bacteria that transform malic acid into lactic and carbonic acids. Not generally practised in Alsace.
Kieselgur : In German, literally “silica particles”. Natural siliceous rock formed by accumulated deposits of microscopic fossilised algae. After treatment (crushing and purification) the powdered rock is used to filter wine. There are two types: white for pre-filtration and pink for final filtration.